In recent years, artemisinin and its derivatives, such as artesunate, have been found to have cytotoxic effects, inducing apoptosis, ferroptosis and reducing metastasis in different types of cancers. As is well known, cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; and new cases of the disease are expected to increase by 70% in the next 20 years. In addition to the large amount of published scientific research, clinical trials are currently underway to explore the potential of artemisinin and its derivatives in the treatment of different types of cancer such as, among others: colorectal cancer (phase 2), bowel cancer (phase 2), lung cancer (phase 2), solid tumors (phase 2), breast cancer (phase 1) and hepatocellular carcinoma (phase 1).