Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, and is presently the most common disease transmitted by ticks to humans in the Northern Hemisphere. Currently, antibiotics are becoming less effective and the vaccine is no longer effective at all. Clinical trials using artemisinin in combination with cefoperazone and doxycycline have just started (phase I).

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Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis is a fatal, vector-borne disease caused by the intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania and is spread by the bite of certain types of sandflies. It primarily affects dogs but can also affect human beings. Clinical manifestations of the disease vary from skin ulcers to fatal inflammation of the liver and spleen. Most of the treatments for this disease are toxic, expensive or ineffective. Sesquiterpenes, such as artemisinin, are a new class of drugs with proven antimicrobial and antiviral activities and, in actual fact, capsules containing Artemisia annua leaf extract have been effective for uncomplicated leishmaniasis.

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Coccidiosis

This is a disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by Coccidian protozoa. It affects domestic fowl and thus has huge economic implications for the European Union. A combination of different, secondary metabolites from mature Artemisia annua leaves (artemisinin, camphor, 1,8-cineole and artemisia ketone) are showing promising results for the treatment of several infectious diseases in animals, such as coccidiosis, necrotic enteritis, cándida or acanthamoebiasis).

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